The Leaning Tower of Pisa or simply the Tower of Pisa is the campanile, or freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa, known worldwide for its nearly four-degree lean, the result of an unstable foundation. The tower is situated behind the Pisa Cathedral and is the third-oldest structure in the city's Cathedral Square (Piazza del Duomo), after the cathedral and the Pisa Baptistry.
The height of the tower is 183.27 feet from the ground on the low side and 185.93 feet on the high side. The width of the walls at the base is 8 ft 0.06 in. Its weight is estimated at 16,000 short tons. The tower has 296 or 294 steps; the seventh floor has two fewer steps on the north-facing staircase.
The tower began to lean during construction in the 12th century, due to soft ground which could not properly support the structure's weight, and it worsened through the completion of construction in the 14th century. By 1990, the tilt had reached 51⁄2 degrees. The structure was stabilized by remedial work between 1993 and 2001, which reduced the tilt to 3.97 degrees.
The tower was closed to the public on 7 January 1990, after more than two decades of stabilisation studies and spurred by the abrupt collapse of the Civic Tower of Pavia in 1989. The bells were removed to relieve some weight, and cables were cinched around the third level and anchored several hundred meters away. Apartments and houses in the path of a potential fall of the tower were vacated for safety. The selected method for preventing the collapse of the tower was to slightly reduce its tilt to a safer angle by soil removal 1,342 cubic feet from underneath the raised end. The tower's tilt was reduced by 17.7 inches, returning to its 1838 position. After a decade of corrective reconstruction and stabilization efforts, the tower was reopened to the public on 15 December 2001, and was declared stable for at least another 300 years. In total, 77 short tons of soil were removed.
After a phase (1990–2001) of structural strengthening, the tower has been undergoing gradual surface restoration to repair visible damage, mostly corrosion and blackening. These are particularly pronounced due to the tower's age and its exposure to wind and rain. In May 2008, engineers announced that the tower had been stabilized such that it had stopped moving for the first time in its history. They stated that it would be stable for at least 200 years.
If you're a fan of big taste, then you're gonna go wild over our Southwestern Chicken Packets! We cook our chicken inside tin foil to lock in the flavors of the spices and get that ooey-gooey cheese melted just right. Plus, it makes cleaning-up easy!
- 4 boneless, skinless, chicken breast halves (about 1-1/2 pounds)
- 1/2 teaspoon salt
- 1/4 teaspoon black pepper
- 1/4 cup thinly sliced sun-dried tomatoes in oil, not drained
- 1/2 cup diced green chilies, drained
- 1 cup frozen corn, thawed
- 1/2 teaspoon cumin
- 1/2 teaspoon chili powder
- 1/2 cup shredded Mexican cheese blend, divided
***Make 'em in the oven! - Bake chicken packets at 350 º for 15 -20 minutes or until chicken is no longer pink in center.
1943 – Sir Ben Kingsley, English actor
1965 – Nicholas Sparks, American author